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    affirmative action


    The Affirmative Action Debate

    Legal Background In 2003 (Grutter v. Bollinger, which clarified the Bakke decision (1978)), the Supreme Court ruled that an admissions preference system that uses numerical point systems quota systems to allocate admissions slots based on race is not permitted but that universities can take race into account during admissions in more subtle ways: Tamara Lewin and Richard Perez-Pena, June 30, 2015, Colleges Brace for Supreme Court Review of Race-Based Admissions,